Although the application of floating fish feed pellet making machine extrusion technology in the feed industry started late, the development speed is very fast, and the application range is also relatively wide, and it has even become an important technical means in the current feed processing.
However, how to use the extrusion technology and floating fish feed pellet making machine scientifically, rationally, and stably for a long time to maximize its benefits and functions is still a technical problem that puzzles many feed companies.
The starch in the feed is mainly amylose, and because the starch pellets form granular agglomerates, its structure is compact and the water absorption is poor. The starch enters the extruder from the floating fish feed making machine conditioner, and in the closed environment of high temperature and high pressure, the macromolecular polymer is in a molten state, and the local molecular chain is cut off by strong pressure and shearing force, resulting in the degradation of amylopectin.
At the same time, it also causes the cleavage of the α-1,4 glycosidic bond in the amylose, resulting in starch dextrinization, and the starch molecules are broken into short-chain dextrins, which are degraded into soluble reducing sugars, which improve the solubility, digestibility and flavor of starch.
The extruded starch made by floating fish feed pellet making machine, not only has gelatinization effect, but also saccharification effect, which increases the water-soluble content of starch several times to dozens of times, provides favorable conditions for the action of enzymes, and improves the utilization rate of starch in aquatic feed.
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During the floating fish feed pellet making machine extrusion process, the protein is subjected to high temperature, high pressure and strong mechanical shearing force in the extrusion cavity, its surface charge is redistributed and tends to be uniform, the molecular structure is stretched and reorganized, and the intermolecular hydrogen bonds,
Secondary bonds such as disulfide bonds are partially broken, resulting in the final denaturation of the protein. This denaturation makes it easier for proteases to enter the interior of the protein, thereby improving digestibility.
In the floating fish feed pellet making machine extrusion process, the main factors affecting protein denaturation are temperature, pressure, strong shear and the moisture of the extruded material.
The inactivation of lipase and lipoxygenase in the feed improves the storage stability of fat, and also promotes the formation of fat-starch complexes and reduces fat deterioration, which is beneficial for fat storage.
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Full-fat soybeans are puffed to reduce the chance of fat being exposed to air and deteriorate. In a high-shear environment, soybean oil cells are fully ruptured, thus improving the utilization of fat. Under mild conditions, such as the floating fish feed pellet making machine puffing temperature below 100℃, the effect of fat oxidation is small.
As the floating fish feed making machine puffing temperature rises from 120℃ to 170℃, the moisture increases, and the residual time in the extrusion cavity increases, and the fat oxidation value increases rapidly.
In addition, there are other factors affecting the oxidation of fat, such as the increase of product surface area and transition metal elements can accelerate the oxidation of fat.
Crude fiber feed, also known as rough feed, refers to feed with a natural moisture content below 60% and a crude fiber content equal to or higher than 18% in dry matter. The crude fiber content in all kinds of straws is more than 20%, and the crude fiber content in rice husk is 44%, which is the grain by-product with the highest crude fiber content in all feeds.
The annual output of various types of straw in my country is 5 trillion tons, and the part used for feed is less than 10%. Compared with the utilization rate of 20% in developed countries, there is a big gap .
Through the floating fish feed pellet making machine extrusion technology, due to the humidification, heating, pressurization and expansion, the lignin between cells and the layers in the cell wall is melted, some hydrogen bonds are broken, the crystallinity is reduced, and the macromolecular substances are decomposed.
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The original compact structure becomes fluffy and part of the digestible substances are released, thereby improving the utilization rate of the feed. The current research results show that after the fibers are processed and extruded, the content of soluble fibers increases relatively, generally by about 3%.
The fiber change is mainly affected by the floating fish feed pellet making machine processing conditions, and obvious changes will occur when the processing conditions are severe.
The high temperature, high humidity and high pressure of the floating fish feed pellet making machine puffing process will lead to the loss of the biological activity of various vitamins, among which the vitamins that are easily oxidized are particularly obvious.
The vitamins added or added to the feed are all lost due to extrusion processing of floating fish feed extruder. The way to overcome the loss of vitamin activity caused by puffing is to increase the amount of vitamins added to the formula, so that the lost residual vitamins can still meet the needs of animals.
The extrusion process of floating fish feed pellet making machine can not only effectively reduce the anti-nutritional factors in the feed such as antitrypsin, lipoxygenase, aringoxin, etc., but also decompose the mustard II and Gossypol, reducing the content of its harmful components.
In addition, for common harmful microorganisms in feed raw materials, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, etc., most of the harmful microorganisms can be killed by extrusion.
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